Observations on the Mussulmauns of India
By Meer Hassan Ali
Public Domain Books
Bibliography of Works
USED IN PREPARING THE INTRODUCTION AND NOTES
Arnold, T.W. The Preaching of Islam, London, 1896.
Beale, T.W. An Oriental Biographical Dictionary, London, 1894.
Burton, Sir R.F. The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, 12 vols., London, 1894.
Burton, Sir R.F. A Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Mecca, 2 vols., London, 1893.
Crooke, W. The Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, 2 vols., Westminster, 1896.
Fanshawe, H.C. Delhi Past and Present, London, 1902.
Fazalalullah Lutfullah, ’Gujarat Musalmans’, in Bombay Gazetteer, ix, part ii, Bombay, 1899.
Führer, A. The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, Allahabad, 1891.
Irwin, H.C. The Garden of India, London, 1880.
Jaffur Shurreef, Qanoon-e-Islam, or the Customs of the Mussulmans of India, trans. G.A. Herklots, Madras, 1863.
Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh, 3 vols., Lucknow, 1877.
Hughes, T.P. A Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885.
[Knighton, W.] The Private Life of an Eastern King, London, 1855.
Koran, The, trans. J.M. Rodwell, Everyman’s Library, London, n.d.; by G. Sale, London, 1844.
Lane, E.W. An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 2 vols., 5th ed., London, 1871.
Mishcat-ul Masabih, by Muhammad ibn ’Abd Allah, trans. A.N. Matthews, 2 vols., Calcutta, 1809-10.
Ockley, S. History of the Saracens, London, 1848.
Parks, F. Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque, 2 vols., London, 1852.
Polly, Col. Sir L. The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain, collected from Oral Tradition, 2 vols., London, 1879.
Sell, E. The Faith of Islam, Madras, 1880.
Sleeman, Major-Gen. Sir W.H. A Journey through the Kingdom of Oudh, in 1849-1850, 2 vols., London, 1858.
Sleeman, Major-Gen. Sir W.H. Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official, ed. V.A. Smith, 2 vols., Westminster, 1893.
Watt, Sir G. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, 6 vols., Calcutta, 1889-93.
Yule, Col. H., Burnell, A.C. Hobson-Jobson, 2nd ed., London, 1903.
Aameen, Ameen, Ami, Amen Aaroon, Aaron Abass Ali, ’Abbas, nephew of Husain; Abass Ali Huzerut ke Durgah, Hazrat ’Abbas ’Ali ki dargah Ablution Aboubuker, Abubakr, the Caliph Abraham, sacrifice of Ishmael; his title Abstinence during the Muharram festival Adam, his burial-place; his title; image of Affrine Khaun, Afrin Khan, a eunuch Afthaadah, aftabgir, a sun-shade Agha Mir, minister in Oudh Ahmud Kaabeer, Sayyid Ahmad Kabir, a saint Akbhar Shah, Akbar Shah II, King of Delhi Akbar, the Moghul Emperor, his capture of Chitor Alchemy Aleppo Alexandria, alleged destruction of the library at Ali, ’Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad; murder of; imparted knowledge to the Sufis Ali Reezah, Ar-Raza Ali Ul Hoodah, ’Ali ul Huda Al-kauloek, alkhalaq, a coat with sleeves Allah Khareem, Al-Karim, ’the generous one’ Allah wo uckbaar, Allah u akbar, ’God is most great’ Alligators, caught by monkeys Allum, ’alam, a standard Allumgeer, ’Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb Al Mauss Ali Khaun, Almas ’Ali Khan, a eunuch Almsgiving at the Muharram festival Alrouschid, Harun-al-Rashid, the Caliph Amulets for children Amusements of children Angels, the attendant Animal, fights at the Court of Oudh; mode of slaughtering by Musalmans; life, sanctity of Antelopes, hunted by leopards Ants; sugar laid near their nests; white Apples Arg, arka, the fire plant Arms, polishers of Arrack, ’araq, spirits Artoojee, ustadji, a teacher Artush-baajie, atishbazi, fireworks ’Ashura, the last day of the Muharram festival Asof ood Duolah, Nawab Asaf-ud-daula; his proclamation against infanticide Asthma, a cure for Astrology Ausmaun, ’Usman, the Caliph Ausur namaaz, ’asr ki namaz, prayer at the third watch of the day Ayah, aya, a nurse Ayashur, Ayishah, wife of Muhammad
Baalee Peer, Bala Pir Baaraat, barat. the procession of the bridegroom Baarah Daree, barahdari a room with twelve doors Babool, babul, the tree acacia arabicaBacherkaunie, baqirkhani, a kind of bread Ba daanah, bedanah, seedless grapes Baer, ber, the tree Zizyphus JujubaBahadhoor, bahadur, ’a champion’, a title of honour Baittee, beti, a daughter Bamboos, uses of; flowering of; set on fire by friction Banner of Husain (see ALLUM) Bareheaded people not allowed in a house Basun, besan, pulse flour Bazars described Beards worn by Musalmans; dyeing of Bearer caste, the Bedspreads Bedsteads Beeby Sahib, bibi sahiba, an English lady Beggar, a famous, in Lucknow Begum, begam, a title of a Sayyid lady Biles and blains Birds, catchers of; released in time of sickness Birth rites, scanty rejoicings at birth of a girl; gun-firing; nursing,; first dose of medicine; bathing of child; forty days’ impurity after childbirth; gifts made to the child; birthday celebrations; circumcision; child carried to the Dargah Bis ma Allah, bi’smi’llah, ’in the name of Allah’ Bleeding, procedure at Blistering, flies used for Blood-spitting; cure for Blue stone, a remedy for snakebites Boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr Bodice, the Bohue Begum, Bahu Begum, a daughter-in-law Bootkhanah, butkhanah, an idol temple Borehaun, burhan, the critical days of fever Bows and arrows, use of Brahmanical cords burnt Bread, varieties of Bricks, ancient Bride, the peculium of; modes of selecting; dress of Bridegroom, veil worn by Brushes for hair and teeth Buckaria, Bokhara Buckrah Eade, the baqarah id, festival; gifts sent at Budgerow, a kind of boat Bull-bull, bulbul, the nightingale Bundah Kungoon, Bandar Kangun Bunyah, Baniya, a corn merchant Buraq, the animal on which Muhammad flew to Mecca Burbut, bargat, the banyan tree Burghutt, caste, regard for animal life Burial rites, purification after touching the corpse; see DEATH. Burkhundhar, barqandaz, a man armed with a matchlock Burqa’, a woman’s veil Burrhsaatie, barsati a disease of horses Burruff wallah, barfwala a seller of ice Bushire, a town on the Persian Gulf Bussorah, Basra, a town on the Shatt el Arab in Asiatic Turkey Bussund, basant, the spring festival Butcher bird, the Butchers Buttaire, bater, a quail Butter sellers Buttooah, batua, ornamented bag Bytool Faakere, baitu’l-faqir, ’the house of a holy man’
Cain, reputed founder of Kanauj Caliphas, khalifah, of Shi’ahs and Sunnis; a head of a trade or profession Camphor, used in treating cholera; in burial rites Cardimun, the cardamom Cards, the game of Carounder, karaunda, Carissa CarandasCastanets, see CHUCKIE Catechu, used with betel Cattle, slaughter of, objected to by Hindus Chaff, thrown on the head in mourning Chain at the Ka’bah; of justice, put up by Jahangir Chair, right to use Chapaatie, chapata, a griddle cake Charaagh, chiragh, a lamp Charity, a religious duty; among Musalmans Charpoy, charpai, a kind of bed Chatnee, chatni, a kind of relish Chattah, chhata, an umbrella Cheek, chiq, a door screen Cheetah, chita, a hunting leopard Cherries Children, fasting of Chillum, chilam, the bowl of a water-pipe, the tobacco used to fill it Chillumchee, chilamchi, a wash-hand basin Chilubdhaar, chalapdar, a cymba player China vessels, use of Chirrya wallah, chiryawala, a bird-catcher Chitcherah, chichra, the Achryanthes aspera tree Chitlah, chitra, a kind of melon Chobdhaah, Chobdhaar, chobdar, a mace-bearer Chokeedhar, chaukidar, a watchman Cholera; cures for Chowrie, Chowry, chauri, a yak tail fan Chowsah, chausa, four-sided, of dice Chubbaynee, chabena, parched grain Chuckie, Chuckee, charkhi, a kind of castanets; chakki, a grindstone Chuddah, Chudha, chadar, a sheet Chuhsah, chhahsa, six-sided, of dice Chumund, chaman, a flower bed Chundole, chandol, a kind of sedan chair Chupha, chhappar, a thatched shed Chupkund, chapkan, a kind of coat Cider, made from melon juice Circumcision Clepsydra, used to mark time Cloak, hooded, worn by women Cock-fighting Coel, koil, a kind of cuckoo Concubinage Confectioners Cookery, in Musalman families Cooking, prohibited in the house of mourning Cord, Brahmanical, burned Cossum, Qasim, nephew of Husain; model of his tomb taken in procession Courtie, kurti, a woman’s jacket Cowry shells Cream sellers Cries of hawkers Crown of the King of Oudh Crows, impudence of Cummerbund, kamarband, a waist-cloth, girdle Cuppers Curd sellers. Currants Currie, karhiCutlers Cuttie, khatai, soured milk; kath, gum used with pan
Daak, dak, the letter post Daaood, Daud, David, his mother’s prayer Dacca cloths Damascus fig, the Dancing, considered degrading; women Dates, eating of Dead, food for the; period of mourning for Death rites Debt, imprisonment for, said to be forbidden Decca, Dacca Delhi described Deluge, said not to be known in India Deputtah, dopatta, a double sheet Devotees, Musalman. Dhall, dal, pulse Dhaullie, dali, a basket of fruit and vegetables Dhie, dahi, curds Dhie mudgelluss, dah majlis, the ten days of the Muharram festival Dhobie, dhobi, a washerman Dholle, dhol, a drum Dhollie, a ’dooly’, a litter; wives Dhome, a drum Dhull Dhull, Duldul, the mule of Muhammad Dhurzie, darzi, the tailor caste Diamonds Dice, games played with Dimishk, Dimashq, Damascus Dinar, dinar, denarius, a coin Dinners provided in time of mourning Dirzy; see DHURZIE Divination in selecting a bride Divorce Dog, an impure animal Domenie, Domni, a singing woman Dooar prayer, du’a, supplication Doob grass, dub, Cynodon DactylonDowry of bride, how fixed Draughts, the game of Dress, not changed during the Muharram festival; of a bride Duffelee, dafali, the drummer caste Dukhaun, dukan, a shop Dulhaun, dalan, the hall, entrance of a house Dullha, dulha, a bridegroom Dullun, dulhin, a bride Dunkah, danka, a kettle-drum; dunkah wallah, dankawala, a drummer Dunyah, dhaniya, coriander Durbar, darbar, a court Durgah, dargah, a saint’s shrine; processions to, at Lucknow Durwaun, darwan, a doorkeeper Durweish, darvesh a beggar, a religious mendicant; pretenders to the title Dustha-khawn, dastarkhwan, a table-cloth Dustoor, dastur, custom, the percentages on purchases taken by native servants Dust-storms
Eade, ’Id, a festival; eade-gaarh, ’Idgah, the place where the festival rites are performed Ear cleaners Earrings Earwax, human, administered to elephants Earthquakes; follow a flight of locusts; Kanauj damaged by Eclipse observances Eggs sent at the Nauroz festival Elephant trained to march in time; carriages drawn by; beggar riding on; etiquette on meeting the king Elias ky kishtee, Ilyas ki kishti, boats set adrift in honour of Khwaja Khizr Elijah, Elisha, the prophet Emaum, Imam, leaders of the faithful; Jaffur Saadick, Ja’far as-Sadiq Emaum baarah, Imambara, the place where the Muharram rites are performed Emaum zamunee, imam zamini, a charm to secure safety in a journey English women not visiting the Lucknow bazar Esaee, ’Isa ’l-Masih, Jesus Christ, the Messiah Eshaa namaaz, salatu ’l-’Isha, the night prayer Etiquette in the zenanah; at the Court of Oudh Eunuchs, their power in the Court of Oudh; tale of a pilgrim Eve, the grave of Execution of criminals Exercise, modes of, used by young men Exorcism of evil spirits Eyes decorated with antimony
Faakeer, faqir, a beggar, holy man Fahteeah, al Fatihah, the first chapter of the Koran Falsah, phalsa, falsa, the fruit Grewia asiaticaFasting; exemptions from Fat, not eaten by Musalmans Fatima, Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad; an Arab girl purchased Feringhee Bargh, Farangi Bagh, ’the Franks’ Garden Fierdowsee, Firdausi, the poet; translations of; on slavery Fig, the Fire, jumping into, and walking through Fireworks at the Shab-i-Bara’at festival; see ARTUSH-BAAJIE Firing guns at the birth of a boy Fish, use of; varieties prohibited for use as food; a symbol at the Court of Oudh Flags, in use at the Court of Oudh Flies, inconvenience from; a variety which produces blisters Flower gardens, neglect of; in Moghul palaces Flowers, scent of, the food of aerial spirits Folk tales, told in the zenanah; tale reciters; tale of Daaood; of the Prophet; of pilgrims; of a charitable Arab; of Syaad Harshim; of a saint changing the course of a river; of an ungrateful snake; of a king who longed for a fruit Food, for the dead; not cooked in a house of mourning; lawful for Musalmans Fraught, Furat, the river Euphrates Friday, the Musalman Sabbath Frogs Fruit, use of; sellers of Furniture in the zenanah Furrukhabaad, Farrukhabad, Nawab of
Gabriel, the Angel; inspires the Koran Games played by boys; in the zenanah Gaming prohibited Genii, the Jinn Ghauzee ood deen, Ghazi-ud-diu, King of Oudh Ghee, ghi, clarified butter Ghurrie, ghari, a space of about twenty minutes Glass, gilas, a cherry Glass, vessels, use of; use in windows Goatah chandnie, gola chandni, lace Goattur, gota, a substitute for betel, at the Muharram God, ninety-nine names of Golard, Goulard water Gooderie, gudri, a quilt Goolbudden, gulbadan, a silk fabric Goolistaun, Gulistan of Sa’adi Goomtie, the river Gumti Gooseberries Gootlie, guthli, the first dose given to a baby Grain, threshing and winnowing of Gram, a kind of chick pea, Cicer arietinumGreen, the colour preferred by Sayyids; symbolizing Hasan Greengrocers Grief, exhibition of, at the Muharram festival Guaver, the guava fruit Guinah, genda, the marigold Gurdonie, gardani, a neck ring Gurhum dahnie, garm dahani prickly heat
Haafiz, Hafiz, the Persian poet Haarh, har, a necklace; see HARRH Hackery, chhakra, a bullock carriage Hadge, hajj, pilgrimage to holy places Hadjee, hajji, a pilgrim Hafiz, a man who has learned the Koran by heart Hafsah, the wife of Muhammad Hair, mode of dressing; let loose at the Muharram festival; not shaven in mourning Hand, spread, a symbol; left, not used in eating Harrh, har, a necklace; see HAARH Harshim Syaad, Sayyid Hashim, tale of Hasan, the martyr; Hasan ul Ushkeree, Hasan al-Askari Hatim Tai Haundhee, audhi, a dust storm Haverdewatt. avadavat, the bird estrelda amadara; see LOLLAH Heifer, sacrifice of Herbs used in cooking Hindu gods, images of Holie, the Holi festival Hookha, huqqah, the water-pipe; etiquette in use of; makers of ’snakes’ for Horse racing at Lucknow Horses, food of; use of heel ropes; marks on; paces of; shoes fixed on doors; tails and legs dyed; tails not docked; use of in carriages Hosein, Husain, the martyr; disposal of his head Howdah, haudah, a seat fixed on an elephant Hudeeth, hadis, the sayings of the Prophet Hummoomaun, the monkey god Hanuman Hummoon Shah, Hamun Shah Hurkaarah, harkara, a footman, messenger Hurrh, al-Hurr, the Shami leader Hurrundh, arand, the castor-oil plant Hurth Maaree, the scene of the slaughter of the martyrs Husbandmen, life of Huzerut, hazrat, a title of respect Hydrabaad, Hyderabad Hydrophobia, a cure for Hyza, haiza, cholera
Ibrahim, son of the Prophet; Ibraahim Mukhaun, Ibrahim Makan, ’the place of Abraham’, at Mecca Ice-making Idolatry prohibited to Musalmans Infanticide among Musalmans Ink-making Ishmael, son of the Prophet; sacrifice of Islaaim, Islam
Ja’adah poisons Hasan Jaffur Saadick, the Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq Jahaun-punah, jahan panah, a title of honour, ’asylum of the world’ Jahmun, Jamun, jaman, jamun, the fruit Eugenia Jambolana; see JARMUN Jains, their tenderness for animal life Jarmun, see JAHMUN Jaullie, jali, netting Jeddah Jerusalem, pilgrimage to Jessamine tree, the Jesus Christ, the Musalman title of; His Nativity; His Coming Jewellery, craving of women for; put aside at the Muharram festival Jhaawn namaaz, ja’e namaz, a prayer carpet Jhammah, jama, a long gown Jhaumdanie, jamdani, an ornamented bag Jhanngeer, the Emperor Jahangir, his chain of justice Jhewl, jhul, the trappings of an elephant Jhillmun, jhilmil, venetian shutters for doors and windows Jhy Singh, Raja Jai Singh, his observatories Jillewdhar, jilaudur, an attendant on a man of rank Jinn, the Joel, the Prophet Jonk, a leech Joshun, joshan, an ornament worn by women on the upper arm Judee, Mount Jugglers Jumma musjid, Jumna musjid, Jame’ masjid, a congregational mosque Justice, administration of in Oudh
Kaabah, Ka’bah, the holy place at Mecca; water spout at Kaanaut, qanat, the side walls of a tent Kaarawaun, kawan, a caravan Kaareem Zund, Karim Khan Zand, anecdote of; see KHAREEM ZUND Kaarjil, kajal, lampblack applied to the eyes Kaawaus, khawass, a special female attendant Kabooza, kharbuzah, the melon Kalipha, khalifah, a Caliph, head servant; see CALIPHA Kallonie wallah, khilauniwala, a toy-seller Kannoge, the city of Kanauj; founded by Cain; destroyed by an earthquake Katorah, katora, a shallow drinking cup Kauflaah, kafilah, a caravan Kaullie Nuddee, the Kali Nadi river Kauzy, Qazi, a Musalman law officer Keebaab, kabab, pieces of meat roasted on skewers Keerah, kira, a leech Ketcherie, khichri, rice cooked with pulse and spices Kettledrum, the; see DUNKAH Khadijah, wife of the Prophet Khareem Zund; see KAAREEM ZUND Khaun, khan, ’lord’, a title of honour Khaunce, Kansa, King of Mathura Khaunie, a folk tale Kheer, khir, milk boiled with rice Khidmutghar, khidmatgar, a table servant Khillaut, khil’at, a robe of honour Khodah Afiz, Khuda hafiz, ’God be your Protector!’ Khoraan, the Koran, Qur’an; its history; not to be translated; taught to girls; its doctrine regarding women; passages of, inscribed as amulets; learnt by heart; readers of Khus-khus, khaskhas, the fragrant root of the grass Andropogon muricatusKhusru Parviz, King of Persia Khwaja Khizr, the saint Kiblaah, qiblah, the direction assumed in prayer Killaah, qal’a qil’a, a fort Kirhnee, kirni, the fruit Canthium parviflorumKirrich, kirch, a straight thrusting sword Kishtee, kishti, a boat Kitchens in the zenanah Kite-flying Knife-grinders Koofah, the city Kufah Kootub, the Qutb Minar pillar at Delhi Kornea, Kanhaiya, Krishna Koss, kos, a measure of distance, about two miles Kraabaalah, Kerbela, Karbala, the holy city Kuffin, kafn, a coffin, winding-sheet Kummeruck, kamrak, the fruit Averrhoa CarambolaKungoon, Bandar Kangun in the Persian Gulf Kurah, kora, aloe water Kurbootah, kharbuza, the shaddock fruit Kutcher, khichar, rice boiled with pulse and spices
Labaadah, Labaadh, labada, a rain-coat Labaun, loban, frankincense; see LAHBAUN Ladies, European, not visiting bazars; Musalman, conversation of Lahaaf, lahaf, a quilt Lahbaun, see LABAUN Lampblack, applied to the eyes Lance, exercises with the Leopards trained for sport Leech vendors Leechie, lichi, the fruit Nephelium LichiLeft hand used for ablution, not for eating with Letters, dedicated to God Licenses for marriage unknown Lights burned before the Taziahs Lime, applied to wounds Liquors, fermented, prohibited to Musalmans Locusts; used for food Lollah, lal, the bird Estrelda amandava; see HAVERDEWATT Loodocanah, the city and district Ludhiana Looking-glasses in zenanahs; bride’s face first seen in Lota, a brass water-vessel Luchmee, Lakshmana, image of Luggun, lagan a washing pan Lungoor, langur, the ape Semnopithecus entellus Mabaaruck Now-Rose, Nauroz mubarakMaccurrub, muqarrab, angel messengers Madhaar, Madar, the saint Magic, to bring rain; to cause fertility Mahana, miyana, a kind of litter Mahdhaar, madar, the tree Calotropis giganteaMahout, mahawat, an elephant driver Mahrattas, raids of in the Panjab Mahul, mahall the seraglio Mahummud, Muhammad, the Prophet, his mission; his title; tales regarding; fixes Friday as the Sabbath; laws of the pilgrimage; his rules of conduct; laws regarding polygamy Mahummud Baakur, Muhammad Baqir Mahurrum, the Muharram festival; date of; ornaments laid aside at; immense expenditure on; second day observances; fifth day observances; last day observances; clothes given away; inauspicious for marriages; objected to by Sunnis Majoob Soofies, majzub, ’abstracted’ Mango tree, the Marriage, forced, prohibited; age for; settlements unknown; service; exorbitant expenditure on Matchmakers Matunjun, muttajjan, meat boiled with sugar and spices; see MATUNJUN Maulvee, maulavi, a doctor of the law Mautunjun, see MATUNJUN Mayllah, mela, a fair, a religious assemblage Mayndhie, mendhi, the shrub Lawsonia alba, apllied to hands and feet; smeared on bride and bridegroom; procession of; sent to bridegroom by bride; smeared on horses; rite at marriage Mayvour, mewa, fruit Mazoor, Mazoorie, mazdur, mazdurni, a day labourer Meals, among Musalmans Meat, use of by Musalmans Mecca, the holy city; the Holy House; life held sacred at; Black Stone at; see KAABAH Medicine, native system of Medina, the holy city Meer, mir, a title of Sayyids Meer Eloy Bauxh, Mir Ilahi Bakhsh Meer Hadjee Shah, Mir Haji Shah, his life; character; makes his own winding sheet; listens to the reading of the Bible; views on fasting; tea drinking; describes the Hajj; describes Mecca; life at Ludhiana; adventure with a snake; adventures with tiger; his pilgrimage to Arabia; cures an Arab lady; attacked by pirates; purchases Fatimah, an Arab girl Meer Hasan Ali, husband of the authoress Meer Hasan Ali, Mrs., the authoress Meer Nizaam ood deen, Mir Nizam-ud-din Meer Syaad Mahumud, Mir Sayyid Muhammad Meetah, meettah, mitha, mithai, sweet, sweetmeats Melons, cider made from the juice Metals transformed into gold Mhembur, minbar, mimbar, the pulpit of a mosque Mhidie, al Mahdi, ’the Directed One’; signs of his coming; his birthday Mina, maina, the bird Gracula religiosaMinerals, medicinal use of Missee, missi, a preparation for staining the teeth Mittie wallah, mithaiwala, a sweetmeat vendor Moat, moth, the aconite-leaved kidney bean Mocha, Mokha, a port on the Red Sea Moghdhur, mugdar, a sort of dumb-bell or club used in athletic exercises Mohur, a gold coin Monkeys; and alligators; affection for their offspring; and snakes; wounded; and treasure; use of antidotes for poison Moollakhaut, mulaqat, a mourning assemblage Mooltanie mittee, multani mitti, fuller’s earth Moon, new, festival at; influence of; when full auspicious; drinking the; influence on wounds Moonkih, Munkar, Munkir, the Recording Angel Moonshie, munshi, a writer, secretary Moosa, Musa, Moses; Musa al-Kazim, the Caliph Moosul, musal, a pestle used for husking rice Mortem, matam, mourning Moses, Musalman title of; tale regarding Moslem, Muslim, cousin of Husain Mosque, absence of decoration in; caretakers of; at Kanauj; pollution of Mosquitoes Mourning, dress worn during the Muharram festival; chaff thrown on the head; head and feet left bare; for forty days after a death; shaving forbidden during Muchullee, machhli, fish Mucka Beg Muckunpore, Makanpur Mudgeluss, majlis, a mourning assembly Muggalanie, Mughlani, a Moghul woman, a needlewoman Mugganee, mangni, the marriage engagement Muggrib, maghrib ki namaz, sunset prayer Mukburrah, Mukhburrah, maqbarah, a mausoleum Mukhdoom Jhaunneer, Makhdum Jahaniya Jahangasht, the saint Mukhun, makkhan, butter Mulberries Mullie, malai, cream Munall, munhnal, a pipe mouth-piece Muntah, mantra, spells, incantations Murdanah, mardanah, the men’s quarters in a house Murseeah, marsiyah, a funeral elegy; see MUSSEEAH Musheroo, mashru, silk cloth permitted to be worn at prayer Mushukh, mashk, a skin water-bag Music in the zenanah Musnud, masnad a pile of cushions, a throne Musseah, Musseeah; see MURSEEAH Mustaches Myriam, Maryam, the Virgin Mary Myrtle, the tree
Naalkie, nalki, a kind of litter Naarah, nara, a string Nadir Shaah, Nadir Shah, King of Persia Najoom, najoomee, nujumi, an astrologer Nala and Damayanti, tale of Namaaz, namaz, the daily liturgical prayer of Musalmans Namaazie, namazi, one given to prayer, a devotee, one who calls the people to prayer Nativity of Jesus Christ, observed by Musalmans Naunbye, nanbai, a bazar baker Nautch woman; Nautchunee, nachni, a dancer Neam, nim, the tree Melia Azadirachta; see NEEM Neellah tootee, nila tutiya, blue vitriol, medicinal use of New Moon festival, the New Year’s Day, see NOU-ROSE Nitre, manufacture of Nizaam ood deen, Nizam-ud-din, the saint Noah, Musalman title of; his place of burial; ark of, where rested Nose-rings; see NUT Nou-Rose, nauroz the New Year’s Day festival Nudghiff Usheruff, Nejef, Mashhad ’Ali Nujeeb, najib, a class of infantry Nusseer ood Deen Hyder, Nasir-ud-din Haidar, King of Oudh Nut, Nutt, nath, a nose-ring Nuwaub, nawab, ’a deputy’, title of the rulers of Oudh Nuzza, nazr, nazar, an offering from an inferior to a superior Nykee, Nakir, the Recording Angel
Omens, at Nauroz festival; used in selecting a bride; at marriage Omir, ’Umar, the second Caliph; said to have destroyed the Alexandrian library Ood-ood, hudhud, the lapwing, hoopoe Oostardie, ustadi, a teacher; see ARTOOJEE Orme, am, the mango Orme peach, the peach Ornaments, use of by women; see JEWELLERY Otta, ’itr, otto of roses Oudh, administration of justice in the Nawabi; Nawabs and Kings of
Paadishah Begum, Padshah Begam, the Paak, pak, pure Pachisi, the game Paidshah, padshah, a King Palace, the, at Delhi Palkie, palki, the common palanquin Pallungh, palang, a kind of bed Paper, written, objection to burning; made of bamboo Pataan, one of the Pathan tribe Pawn, pan, betel leaf; not used during the Muharram festival Pawndawn, pandan, a box to hold betel leaf Peach, the Pearls Pedigrees of Sayyids carefully kept Peer, pir, a Musalman saint or holy man Pellet bow, use of the Pepul, pipal, the sacred fig tree, Ficus religiosaPickles, use of, and sale Pigeon flying; shooting Pilgrims, regulations for; cloak worn by Pillau, pilau, meat or fowl boiled with rice and spices Pineapple, the; see UNANAS Plague, an outbreak of Plums Poison detected by means of dishes Polygamy; among Indian kings Pomegranate, the Prayer, the call to; ’opening of difficulties’; carpet; times of, how announced Prickly heat Printing, not practised in Lucknow Prisoners released to effect a cure of the sick or as a thank-offering Punkah, pankah, a kind of fan; punkah wala, punkah wala, a fan-seller Pappayah, papaiya, the papaw tree, Carica PapayaPurdah, pardah, a screen to conceal ladies Purrh, pahar, a watch, a measure of time Pyjaamah, paejama, drawers; stuff used in making
Quail fighting Quicksilver, use of in medicine
Racaab puttie, rikab patthari, a stone plate Rain magic Rainy season, the Rajpoots, Rajputs, infanticide among Raspberries Ravenscroft, G., murder of Red, the Sunni colour; of Husain Reetah, ritha the soapnut, use of in medicine Resident at Lucknow, the Resurrection, doctrine of the Ricketts, Mordaunt, Resident at Lucknow Right hand used in eating River, course of changed by a saint Romall, rumal, a handkerchief Rooey, rohu the carp fish Rope-dancing Roses; smelling of, causes colds and sneezing; rose water; syrup, seeds, oil, uses of Roshunie, roshanai, ink Rozedhaar, rozadar, one who keeps a fast Rumzaun, Ramazan, Ramzan, the festival Rutt, rath, a bullock carriage Ruzzie, razai a quilt Ryott, ra’iyat a subject, a cultivator
Saabeel, sabil, the place where sherbet is distributed at the Muharram festival Saadie, Shaikh S’adi, the Persian poet Saag, sag, herbs of various kinds used in cooking Saalik, salik, a devotee, a kind of Sufi Saatarah, sitara, a guitar Sabbath, the, among Musalmans Sacrifice of animals at the Bakrah ’Id festival Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh, tomb of Sahbaund, Sawan, the fourth Hindu month Sahib Logue, Sahib Log, Europeans Saints’ tombs at Kanauj Sainturh, sentha the grass Saccharum ciliare; see SECUNDAH Sakeena Koobraah, Sakina Kibriya, daughter of Husain Salaam-oon-ali khoon, salam ’alai-kum, ’Peace be with thee’ Sallon, salan, a curry of meat, fish, or vegetables Sampwalla, sampwala, a snake-charmer Sarchuk, saachaq, fruits, &c., carried in procession at a marriage Saulgirrah, salgirah, the knot tied to mark a birthday Scales, the, doctrine of Scapegoat, released in times of sickness Scorpio, moon of, inauspicious Scorpions, mode of repelling Seclusion of womem, origin of the custom Secundah, sarkanda, roots of the grass Saccharum ciliare, used for mats and screens; see SAINTURH Secungebeen, sikanjabin, oxymel, vinegar Seepie wallah deelie sukha, sipi wala gila sukha, moist or dry cuppers Seer, scr, a weight of about two pounds Serai, sarai, a native inn Seur, suar a hog, a term of abuse Seven, a lucky number Shaah Jhee, Shahji, a beggar Shaah Nudghiff, Shah Najaf, a shrine at Lucknow Shaah ood Dowlah, Shah-ud-daula, a darvesh Shah Allum, Shah ’Alam II, King of Delhi, his grave Shah Allumgeer, Shah ’Alamgir, the Emperor Aurangzeb Shah Jahan, the Moghul Emperor Shahjee, see SHAH SHERIF OOD DEEN Shahnama, the poem by Firdausi Shah Nizaam ood deen, Shaikh Nizam ud-din Auliya, the saint Shah Sherif ood deen Mahmood, Shah Sharif ud-din Mahmud, a darvesh Shampooing Shaving, discontinued during mourning Shawm, Sham, Syria Shawmie, Shami, a native of Syria Sheah, Shiah, the Musalman sect; quarrels with Sunnis at the Muharram; their numbers compared with those of Sunnis; the creed of Sheah-maul, shirmal, a kind of bread; see SHEERMAUL Sheekaree, shikari, a huntsman Sheermaul, shirmal, a kind of bread; see SHEAH-MAUL Sheikh Mahumud, Shaikh Muhammad Sherbet, sharbat, a drink, how made; distributed at the Muharram festival; payment for at marriages SHERREFAH, SHERREEFHA, sharifah, the custard apple Sheruff, Sharif, the governor of Mecca Shimeear, Shimar, the chief agent in the murder of Husain Shiraaz, Shiraz, a city in Persia Shoes removed in sacred places and in houses; varieties of Shooghur Allah, see SHUGGUR ALLAH Shopkeepers, mode of doing business Shroff, sarraf, a moneychanger Shroud, the burial Shubh-burraat, Shab-i-bara’at, the night of record, a festival Shubnum, shabnam, ’dew’, a kind of fine cloth Shuggur Allah, shukr Allah, ’Praise be to God!’; see SHOOGHUR ALLAH Shujah ood Dowlah, Shuja ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh Shutteringhie, shatranji, a striped floor-cloth Sickley ghur, saikalgar, a polisher of arms Sickness, attributed to spirits Sikhs, the; campaign against Silk, wearing of Sin, repentance of Singing women Siraat, sirat, the bridge over which the soul passes Sirrakee, sirki, the reed Saccharum ciliare, used for mats, &c Sita ki Rasoi, a building at Kanauj Slaves, domestic, condition of; female in the zenanah; liberated by or on the death of the owner; property of reverting to the master Snake charmers, deception practised by Snakes, superstitions regarding; and monkeys; tale of an ungrateful; an adventure with Soap, substitutes for Society of Musalman ladies Solomon, King, tale of; the first Sufi Soobadhaar, subahdar, a native officer, a viceroy Soobadhaarie, subahdari, a province under a viceroy Soobhoo namaaz, namaz-i-subh, the dawn prayer Soofy, Sufi, a sect of Musalmans; consulted to solve mysteries; pretenders to piety; assemblage of with singing and dancing; principles of Soojinee, sozani, a quilted cloth Soonie, Sunni, the Musalman sect; rulers at Mecca Soota-badhaar, Soutabardar, a mace-bearer; see SOTA-BADHAAH Sota-badhaah; see SOOTA-BADHAAR Spinach, varieties and uses of Spirits, evil, exorcism of Starvation, a cure for disease Stockings, wearing of in the zenanah Stone dishes Strawberries Subzah, sabzah, a song bird Suffee Ali, Safiya ’Ilah, a title of Adam Sulleed, tharid, a kind of bread Sulmah, surma, antimony applied to the eyes Sumdun Begum, samdhan begum, a connexion by marriage Surraie, surahi, a long-necked water flagon Surringhee, sarangi, a sort of violin Sutkah, sadaqah, offerings of intercession Suwaaree, sawari, an equipage, escort Sweetmeats, sellers of; given to a man in a state of ecstasy, Swine, held abominable by Musalmans Sword exercises Syaad, Sayyid, a class of Musalmans; their origin; care used and difficulty in making marriage engagements; respect paid to; dues received by Syaad Ahmad Kaabeer, Sayyid Ahmad Kabir, Syaad Harshim, Sayyid Hashim
Taaif, Ta’if, a fertile tract near Mecca, Taarkhanah, tahkhanah, an underground room, Taaseel-dhaar, tahsildar, a native collector of revenue, Taaweez, taawize, ta’wiz, an amulet, talisman, Tahujjoot, namaz-i-tahajjud, prayer after midnight, Tale kee archah wallah, Tel ka acharwala, a seller of oil pickles, Talismans; see TAAWEEZ Tamarind tree, the, vegetation beneath it dying, Tamerlane, Taimur Lang, introduces seclusion of women, Tarantula, the, Tattle, tatti, a screen, a device for cooling rooms, Tawurshear, tabashir, a substance found in bamboos, Tazia, ta’ziya, a model tomb carried in procession at the Muharram festival; not peculiar to India; not used by Sunnis; burial of, Tea, use of, Teeth, cleaning of, 59 Thonjaun, tamjhan, thamjhan, a kind of litter, Throne, of the King of Oudh, Tigers, tamed, wandering about the house; adventure with, Time, Musalman division of; measured by a clepsydra, Timoor, Taimur, his invasion of India, Tin, use of in dyeing and in medicine, Tithes, Toddy, Toothbrushes, Tope, a grove of trees, Tor, tar, the palm tree, Borassus flabelliformis, Toy sellers, Trades in Lucknow, Travellers excused from fasting, Treasure, burying of, Trees, speaking on the Mahdi’s birthday, Tuckht, takht, a wooden platform on which men sit and sleep, Tufaun, tufan, a storm, Tumaushbeen, tamashabin, ’a spectator of wonders’, Tundhie, thandi, a cooling draught taken at the breaking of a fast, Turkaarie, tarkari, vegetables
Uberuck, abrak, talc, mica, Ulsee, alsi, linseed, Linum usitatissimum, Umbrella, a mark of dignity, Umultass, amaltas, the Indian laburnum, Cassia fistula, use in medicine, Ungeeah, angiya, an under-jacket or bodice, Ungeel, injil, Evangel, the Gospels, Unnah, anna, a nurse, Unrurkha, angarkha, a long tunic, Ununas, ananas, the pineapple, Ananassa sativa, Urzees, arziz, tin, used in medicine and dyeing, Usury, forbidden
Vakeel, wakil, an agent Vazeefah, wazifah, a passage read from the Koran Vegetables, use of as food Veil, worn by a bridegroom Venus, the conjunction of Vermicelli, used in the times of fasting Villoiettee Begum, Wilayati begam, ’the foreign lady’ Vizier, wazir, the prime minister at the Court of Oudh
Walking barefoot, a sign of mourning Wax from the human ear administered to elephants White ants Widows, dress of; reduced numbers of; marriage of Window glass, scarcity of Witch, tale of a; hair plucked from the head of; has crooked feet; sucking out the vitals of a victim Witchcraft, general belief in Wives, prescribed number of; large numbers of married Women, belief that they do not possess souls; seclusion of Wounds, treatment of
Yaacoob, Ya’qub, Jacob Yeusuf, Yusuf, Joseph Yieyah, Yahya, St. John Yoube, Aiyub, Job Yumen, Yemen in Arabia Yuzeed, Yazid, second Caliph of the house of Umaiyah
Zahur morah, zahr mohra, the bezoar stone Zarbund, zerband, a waist string Zechareah, Zachariah Zeearut, ziyarah, ziyarat, a visit to a shrine Zeenahnah, the zenanah, described Zemindhaar, zamindar, a landowner Zohur namaaz, salatu-’z-zuhr, mid-day prayer Zuckhaut, zakat, alms for the poor Zynool auberdene, Az-zainu’l-’abidin